What is Oncology

What is Oncology

Essentially, oncology is a branch of science that deals with cancers and tumors. It is derived from the words “once” and “logy” which means bulk, mass, or tumor.

  • What is cancer
  • Role of an oncologist
  • Oncology diagnostic tools
  • Cancer therapy
  • Types of Oncologists
  • What is a tumor board?

1.What is cancer


Cancer begins when cancer cells grow out of control in a part of the body. Each cell has tightly regulated system that controls its growth, maturity, reproduction, and eventual death. All cancers are caused by uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells.

2.Role of an oncologist

Oncologists are medical professionals who specialize in cancer. They help diagnose cancer, stage it, and grade how aggressive it is.

3.Oncology diagnostic tools

There are a number of symptoms that can point towards cancer, such as fatigue, weight loss, unexplained anemia, fever of unknown origin etc. As a diagnostic tool, the clinical history remains crucial. Several diagnostic methods are used in oncology, such as biopsies and microscopy, in order to diagnose cancer. Aside from endoscopy, other diagnostic techniques include X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, ultrasounds, and other radiological procedures. Tests for tumor markers and biological markers are common methods of detecting cancer. A rise in these markers in the blood may indicate the presence of cancer.

4.Cancer therapy

Oncologists help patients determine the best course of treatment based on the grade and stage of their cancer. Other specialists Other specialists may also be involved in cancer treatment, such as surgeons, radiation oncologists, or radiotherapists. Cancer therapy is however, coordinated by oncologists.

5.Types of Oncologists

Surgical oncology, radiation oncology, and medical oncology are the three main areas of oncology. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies are among the methods used by medical oncologists to treat cancer. A radiation oncologist uses high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells during radiation therapy. A surgical oncologist treats cancer through surgery, including removing the tumor and nearby tissue. These surgeons can  also perform certain types of biopsies to diagnose the disease.

6.What is a tumor board?

A tumor board may review a patient’s cancer case when the diagnosis is complex. At some cancer centers, tumor boards review all cases of cancer. The tumor board consists of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and surgeons who work together to determine the best treatment plan for cancer patients. There may also be other specialists on the tumor board who can provide a diverse perspective that would be helpful to you in getting the best care.

Know about the minimally invasive treatment of fibroids

Know about the minimally invasive treatment of fibroids


Any lady would become frightened if you told her she has fibroid tumours. There is no need to be concerned because the risk of cancer is low because more than 25% of fibroids are symptomatic.

What signs does it display?

One hundred out of every one thousand women are reported to seek treatment for fibroids. The signs and symptoms can frequently be upsetting and may include:

  • Menorrhagia
  • Infertility
  • Pelvic pressure-related pain
  • Disturbances in the bowels and urine


Hysterectomy was traditionally the major treatment for this ailment, while myomectomy was used for patients who wanted to become pregnant. But there is tremendous morbidity linked to these surgical treatments.

To treat symptomatic fibroids, doctors employ gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues and the Mirena IUS. However, Mirena can only be utilised by individuals who have a Take care of your fibroids. The symptoms, which may include the following, can frequently be upsetting:


  • Menstruation
  • Fertility issues
  • Pelvic pressure-related discomfort
  • Urinary and bowel disturbances


Myomectomy was utilized for patients who desired to become pregnant, but hysterectomy was typically the main treatment for this ailment. However, there is significant morbidity associated with these surgical procedures.

Doctors use the Mirena IUS and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs to treat symptomatic fibroids. However, Mirena cannot be used by people with large uteri since it will deform the endometrial cavity.

A Significant Advancement in Women’s Health: Laparoscopic Techniques

Recently, the treatment of fibroids with uterine preservation has come into emphasis. Significant improvements in minimally invasive procedures have resulted in the creation of therapeutic options for symptomatic fibroids that spare the uterus. The two newly available alternative therapies:


  • Fibroid Embolization in the Uterus
  • High-intensity focused ultrasound energy with MRI guidance
  • Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE): What is it exactly?

It is a very well-liked and successful method of treating uterine fibroids. Around the world, more than 50,000 treatments have been completed. It is recommended for the majority of symptomatic fibroids and even uterine adenomyosis. Acute or pelvic inflammatory disorders, gynaecological cancer, untreated coagulopathy, and severe iodinated contrast media allergies are among the contraindications.

Who are the UFE’s ideal candidates?

UFE is particularly advised for: • Patients who are unable or unwilling to undergo surgery

Patients with coexisting adenomyosis; Patients with cervical fibroids, which make myomectomy technically difficult; Young patients for whom hysterectomy is the only surgical choice.

Is UFE a successful procedure?

85–90% of women who have had a UFE report complete alleviation from symptoms relating to heavy bleeding, discomfort, or mass. Recurrence of treated fibroids is uncommon, as shown by a study conducted a few years ago in which an embolized fibroid developed again.

Are there any risks associated with the procedure?

Use of 3D Printing in Orthopedic Oncology

Use of 3D Printing in Orthopedic Oncology

Modern orthopedic oncology strikes a balance between two diametrically opposed approaches to treating cancer. On the one hand, total cancer removal including its “roots” in the surrounding tissue is guaranteed by maximal removal. On the other hand, it only eliminates as much as is required to keep the afflicted part’s function and appearance intact.

In this regard, 3-D printing, which creates three-dimensional objects as exact replicas of three-dimensional digital models by laying down the material in layers, has proven to be particularly useful for bone cancer surgery, both for thorough planning and for precisely carrying out that plan.

for meticulous planning and for carrying out that strategy properly.

In numerous ways, the use of 3D printing has helped bone cancer surgery. Orthopedic oncologists can now order joints and bones, starting with 3-D printed models of joints bearing tumors, to better comprehend the three-dimensional orientation of the tumor concerning the affected bone, especially for non-geometrically shaped bones like the pelvic bones, sacrum, and spine.

More accurate clinic radiological correlation has resulted from this, which benefits:

1- Better preoperative planning

2– Improved communication among operating team members

3- operational reference available

4-A greater comprehension of the needs of the surgeon by implant makers.

Intraoperative navigation is a significant additional application for 3D printing. The surgeon may not always correctly identify the location on the bone where they had planned the cut during bone cancer surgery, resulting in the removal of too much or too little bone. This issue has been resolved by 3-D printed “jigs,” which enable the surgeon to perform precise incisions in accordance with the preoperative plan after consulting with the radiologist. This is accomplished using a 3D-printed model and a jig with slots for the installation of cutting saw blades.

Making implants for reconstruction in limb salvage surgery using 3-D printing has proven to be extremely helpful, in addition to better preoperative planning and execution for resection. This is relevant to circumstances where we must order particular plates or specialized prosthetics that precisely fit the anatomical characteristics of the damaged bone, such as plates for fixation in young children.